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Prosthetic dentistry deals with the replacement of missing teeth, or the whole set of teeth. It rehabilitates the chewing, phonetic and aesthetic function of the teeth.
We divide the prosthetics into fixed and removable ones.
Removable prosthetics include totally removable dentures or partial prothetics, anchored with clips, or a special flexible resin (Flexite). Prosthetics that do not contain metal elements, they are lightweight, and they retain their flexibility.
Fixed prosthetics include dental crowns and bridges. They are made of metal-ceramic or they are all-ceramic (metal-free ceramics - zirconium ceramics).
These are replacements for missing teeth if the teeth cannot be replaced with a fixed bridge or dental implants. As a rule, removable dentures are also a cheaper solution, so they are also done for financial reasons. A typical situation where the missing teeth cannot be replaced by a fixed bridge would be the loss of the back teeth. This will create a gap that is not bounded by fixed teeth on both sides, which is a requirement for creating a fixed bridge
Dental crowns are now well known and aesthetically pleasing dentures. Crowns do not replace the entire tooth, but only its visible part, that is, the part that we use when we eat or see in a smile. To use this possibility, it is important that at least the dental roots are preserved. If a tooth is missing, we use a dental crown as part of the dental implant.
To fix the crown, we need some kind of base to put the crown on. This can be a grinded tooth or piece of metal (e.g., a dental implant). The next step is the dental technician making the crown. All the time the treated tooth is protected by a temporary resin crown, so that a patient can eat, talk and nobody notices that dental treatment is in progress. On the next visit to the dental office, the temporary crown is replaced with the new, definitive one.
A dental bridge, a professionally fixed bridge, is a replacement for one or more missing teeth, fixed on two or more of the patient’s own teeth. These teeth must be ground to the required shape, which is unfortunately a big disadvantage, as these are often healthy intact teeth. Implants or roots can also serve as supports. However, these must be pre-treated with the root attachment beforehand.
The treatment itself is painless with local anaesthesia. Supporting teeth are ground and casts are made so the dental technician can make a replacement that will firmly cement to the ground teeth. Until the final replacement is finished, the patient gets a temporary bridge, almost identical to the finished work. So, at every stage of the treatment you leave the dentist’s office with teeth.
Inlays, onlays and overlays
If the entire crown of the tooth is lost due to caries or injuries, in many cases the tooth does not yet have to be treated with a crown. An alternative is the “onlay” or “overlay”, which is essentially a replacement for a large part or the entire missing crown of the original tooth. It is made based on the model of the patient's teeth, and at the next visit, the dentist will stick it firmly to the correct place, following certain principles. This work is highly aesthetic, saves the remaining dental tissues, and does not carry the cost the cost of making a standard crown, while its lifetime is almost identical.
Veneers are one of the most modern solutions for the front surfaces of teeth if you don't like the shape, position or colour of one or several teeth, or you have gaps between your teeth and want your smile to look perfect in a few days. These are thin slices of porcelain that adhere to the front of the tooth. The abrasion in this case is not as large as for a crown. The prepared front surface is typically about 0.5 - 0.8 mm thick. After abrading the tooth into the desired shape, temporary veneers are fitted to protect the tooth until the permanent veneers are made by the dental technicians.